C; Scherer, H; Robinson, W. The FNP has developed a series of tools to help families participating in the Food Stamp Program stretch their food dollar and form healthful eating habits including nutrition education. The Hastings Center Studies. In China, the concept of qi developed, a spirit or "wind" similar to what Western Europeans later called pneuma. In , Sir Edward Mellanby incorrectly identified rickets as a vitamin A deficiency because he could cure it in dogs with cod liver oil. More must be done to further our understanding of nutrition literacy specific interventions in non-primary care settings  in order to achieve better health outcomes.
Several lines of evidence indicate lifestyle-induced hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulin function i. For example, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are strongly linked to chronic inflammation, which in turn is strongly linked to a variety of adverse developments such as arterial microinjuries and clot formation i.
Evidence indicates that diets possibly protective against metabolic syndrome include low saturated and trans fat intake and foods rich in dietary fiber , such as high consumption of fruits and vegetables and moderate intake of low-fat dairy products.
The challenges facing global nutrition are disease, child malnutrition, obesity, and vitamin deficiency. The most common non-infectious diseases worldwide, that contribute most to the global mortality rate, are cardiovascular diseases, various cancers, diabetes, and chronic respiratory problems, all of which are linked to poor nutrition. Nutrition and diet are closely associated with the leading causes of death, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Obesity and high sodium intake can contribute to ischemic heart disease, while consumption of fruits and vegetables can decrease the risk of developing cancer.
Foodborne and infectious diseases can result in malnutrition, and malnutrition exacerbates infectious disease. Poor nutrition leaves children and adults more susceptible to contracting life-threatening diseases such as diarrheal infections and respiratory infections. According to UNICEF, in , million children across the globe were underweight and one in four children, million, were stunted in growth.
Childhood malnutrition is common and contributes to the global burden of disease. When humans are undernourished, they no longer maintain normal bodily functions, such as growth, resistance to infection, or have satisfactory performance in school or work.
Many children are born with the inherent disadvantage of low birth weight, often caused by intrauterine growth restriction and poor maternal nutrition, which results in worse growth, development, and health throughout the course of their lifetime. Data on global and regional food supply shows that consumption rose from in all regions. Diets became more diverse, with a decrease in consumption of cereals and roots and an increase in fruits, vegetables, and meat products.
Undernourishment, or hunger, according to the FAO, is dietary intake below the minimum daily energy requirement. The spike in food prices prevented many people from escaping poverty, because the poor spend a larger proportion of their income on food and farmers are net consumers of food. Malnutrition in industrialized nations is primarily due to excess calories and non-nutritious carbohydrates, which has contributed to the obesity epidemic affecting both developed and some developing nations.
Obesity is more prevalent amongst high income and higher middle income groups than lower divisions of income. Vitamins and minerals are essential to the proper functioning and maintenance of the human body. There are 20 trace elements and minerals that are essential in small quantities to body function and overall human health.
Iron deficiency is the most common inadequate nutrient worldwide, affecting approximately 2 billion people. Vitamin A plays an essential role in developing the immune system in children, therefore, it is considered an essential micronutrient that can greatly affect health. Estimates say that Moderate deficiencies are common in Europe and Africa, and over consumption is common in the Americas. This ultimately leads to poor school performance and impaired intellectual capabilities.
Improvement of breast feeding practices, like early initiation and exclusive breast feeding for the first two years of life, could save the lives of 1. This leaves children less likely to contract diarrheal diseases and respiratory infections. Besides the quality and frequency of breastfeeding, the nutritional status of mothers affects infant health. When mothers do not receive proper nutrition, it threatens the wellness and potential of their children. In the US, dietitians are registered RD or licensed LD with the Commission for Dietetic Registration and the American Dietetic Association, and are only able to use the title "dietitian," as described by the business and professions codes of each respective state, when they have met specific educational and experiential prerequisites and passed a national registration or licensure examination, respectively.
In California, registered dietitians must abide by the "Business and Professions Code of Section Archived from the original on Anyone may call themselves a nutritionist, including unqualified dietitians, as this term is unregulated. Some states, such as the State of Florida, have begun to include the title "nutritionist" in state licensure requirements.
Dietary and physical activity guidelines from the USDA are presented in the concept of a plate of food which in superseded the MyPyramid food pyramid that had replaced the Four Food Groups.
Department of Health and Human Services provides a sample week-long menu which fulfills the nutritional recommendations of the government. These disparities are a direct product of social inequalities and social inequalities are rising throughout the industrialized world, particularly in Europe. South Asia has the highest percentage and number of underweight children under five in the world, at approximately 78 million children.
The Eastern and Southern African nations have shown no improvement since in the rate of underweight children under five. Further nutrient indicators show that only 12 per cent of Cambodian babies are exclusively breastfed and only 14 per cent of households consume iodized salt. This region has undergone the fastest progress in decreasing poor nutrition status of children in the world.
Occurring throughout the world, lack of proper nutrition is both a consequence and cause of poverty. According to UNICEF, children in rural locations are more than twice as likely to be underweight as compared to children under five in urban areas. That likelihood doubles to four times in Peru. In the United States, the incidence of low birthweight is on the rise among all populations, but particularly among minorities.
Nutrition directly influences progress towards meeting the Millennium Goals of eradicating hunger and poverty through health and education. Policy and programming must target both individual behavioral changes and policy approaches to public health. While most nutrition interventions focus on delivery through the health-sector, non-health sector interventions targeting agriculture, water and sanitation, and education are important as well. For example, in , iodine deficiency was particularly prevalent, with one in five households, or 1.
Emergencies and crises often exacerbate undernutrition, due to the aftermath of crises that include food insecurity, poor health resources, unhealthy environments, and poor healthcare practices.
Interventions aimed at pregnant women, infants, and children take a behavioral and program-based approach. Behavioral intervention objectives include promoting proper breast-feeding, the immediate initiation of breastfeeding, and its continuation through 2 years and beyond. However, because supplementation often occurs too late, these programs have had little effect. For instance, several East Asian nations have enacted legislation to increase iodization of salt to increase household consumption.
For example, in the Philippines , improved production and market availability of iodized salt increased household consumption. Nutrition is taught in schools in many countries. In England and Wales the Personal and Social Education and Food Technology curricula include nutrition, stressing the importance of a balanced diet and teaching how to read nutrition labels on packaging.
In many schools a Nutrition class will fall within the Family and Consumer Science or Health departments. In some American schools, students are required to take a certain number of FCS or Health related classes.
Nutrition is offered at many schools, and if it is not a class of its own, nutrition is included in other FCS or Health classes such as: In many Nutrition classes, students learn about the food groups, the food pyramid, Daily Recommended Allowances, calories, vitamins, minerals, malnutrition, physical activity, healthy food choices and how to live a healthy life.
The protein requirement for each individual differs, as do opinions about whether and to what extent physically active people require more protein. The Recommended Dietary Allowances RDA , aimed at the general healthy adult population, provide for an intake of 0. The main fuel used by the body during exercise is carbohydrates, which is stored in muscle as glycogen — a form of sugar.
Adequate nutrition is essential for the growth of children from infancy right through until adolescence. Some nutrients are specifically required for growth on top of nutrients required for normal body maintenance, in particular calcium and iron. Malnutrition in general is higher among the elderly, but has different aspects in developed and undeveloped countries. Humans have evolved as omnivorous hunter-gatherers over the past , years.
The diet of early modern humans varied significantly depending on location and climate. The diet in the tropics tended to depend more heavily on plant foods, while the diet at higher latitudes tended more towards animal products. Analyses of postcranial and cranial remains of humans and animals from the Neolithic, along with detailed bone-modification studies, have shown that cannibalism also occurred among prehistoric humans.
Agriculture developed about 10, years ago in multiple locations throughout the world, providing grains such as wheat , rice and maize and potatoes ; and originating staples such as bread and pasta dough  , and tortillas. Farming also provided milk and dairy products, and sharply increased the availability of meats and the diversity of vegetables. Around BC the Vedic texts made mention of scientific research on nutrition.
The Bible's Book of Daniel recounts first recorded nutritional experiment. Selected as court servants, they were to share in the king's fine foods and wine. But they objected, preferring vegetables pulses and water in accordance with their Jewish dietary restrictions.
The king's chief steward reluctantly agreed to a trial. On comparison with the king's men, they appeared healthier, and were allowed to continue with their diet.
The 16th-century scientist and artist Leonardo da Vinci — compared metabolism to a burning candle. James Lind , a physician in the British navy, performed the first attested scientific nutrition experiment, discovering that lime juice saved sailors who had been at sea for years from scurvy , a deadly and painful bleeding disorder. The discovery was ignored [ by whom? Scientists would not identify the essential vitamin C within lime juice until the s.
Around Antoine Lavoisier , the "Father of Nutrition and Chemistry", discovered the details of metabolism, demonstrating that the oxidation of food is the source of body heat.
In George Fordyce recognized calcium as necessary for fowl survival. In the early 19th century, the elements carbon , nitrogen , hydrogen and oxygen were recognized [ by whom? In François Magendie discovered that dogs fed only carbohydrates and fat lost their body protein and died in a few weeks, but dogs also fed protein survived, identifying protein as an essential dietary component.
In the s Claude Bernard discovered that body fat can be synthesized from carbohydrate and protein, showing that the energy in blood glucose can be stored as fat or as glycogen. Adding various types of vegetables and meats to the diets of Japanese sailors prevented the disease. In Eugen Baumann observed iodine in thyroid glands. In , Christiaan Eijkman worked with natives of Java , who also suffered from beriberi. Eijkman observed that chickens fed the native diet of white rice developed the symptoms of beriberi, but remained healthy when fed unprocessed brown rice with the outer bran intact.
Eijkman cured the natives by feeding them brown rice, demonstrating that food can cure disease. Over two decades later, nutritionists learned that the outer rice bran contains vitamin B. In the early 20th century Carl von Voit and Max Rubner independently measured caloric energy expenditure in different species of animals, applying principles of physics in nutrition.
In , Wilcock and Hopkins showed that the amino acid tryptophan was necessary for the survival of rats. A second group of rats to which he also fed an amount of milk containing vitamins. In Stephen M. Babcock and Edwin B.
Hart conducted the single-grain experiment. This experiment ran through In Casimir Funk coined the term vitamin to label a vital factor in the diet: The vitamins were studied [ by whom? In Elmer McCollum discovered the first vitamins, fat-soluble vitamin A and water-soluble vitamin B in ; later identified as a complex of several water-soluble vitamins and named vitamin C as the then-unknown substance preventing scurvy.
Lafayette Mendel and Thomas Osborne — also performed pioneering work on vitamins A and B. In Sir Edward Mellanby incorrectly identified rickets as a vitamin A deficiency, because he could cure it in dogs with cod-liver oil. Also in , H. Produced by Health Canada , the guide advises food quantities, provides education on balanced nutrition, and promotes physical activity in accordance with government-mandated nutrient needs.
Like other nutrition programs around the world, Canada's Food Guide divides nutrition into four main food groups: Dietary and physical activity guidelines from the USDA are presented in the concept of MyPlate , which superseded the food pyramid , which replaced the Four Food Groups.
Department of Health and Human Services provides a sample week-long menu that fulfills the nutritional recommendations of the government. Governmental organisations have been working on nutrition literacy interventions in non-primary health care settings to address the nutrition information problem in the U.
The FNP has developed a series of tools to help families participating in the Food Stamp Program stretch their food dollar and form healthful eating habits including nutrition education. It is designed to assist limited-resource audiences in acquiring the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and changed behavior necessary for nutritionally sound diets, and to contribute to their personal development and the improvement of the total family diet and nutritional well-being.
Launched in , this program promotes lifelong healthful eating patterns and physically active lifestyles for children and their families. It is an interactive educational program designed to help prevent childhood obesity through classroom activities that teach children healthful eating habits and physical exercise.
Nutrition is taught in schools in many countries. In England and Wales , the Personal and Social Education and Food Technology curricula include nutrition, stressing the importance of a balanced diet and teaching how to read nutrition labels on packaging.
In many schools, a Nutrition class will fall within the Family and Consumer Science or Health departments. In some American schools, students are required to take a certain number of FCS or Health related classes.
Nutrition is offered at many schools, and, if it is not a class of its own, nutrition is included in other FCS or Health classes such as: In many Nutrition classes, students learn about the food groups, the food pyramid, Daily Recommended Allowances, calories, vitamins, minerals, malnutrition, physical activity, healthful food choices, portion sizes, and how to live a healthy life.
In the US, Registered dietitian nutritionists RDs or RDNs  are health professionals qualified to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice which includes a review of what is eaten, a thorough review of nutritional health, and a personalized nutritional treatment plan.
They also provide preventive and therapeutic programs at work places, schools and similar institutions. Certified Clinical Nutritionists or CCNs, are trained health professionals who also offer dietary advice on the role of nutrition in chronic disease, including possible prevention or remediation by addressing nutritional deficiencies before resorting to drugs. These Board Certified Nutritionists typically specialize in obesity and chronic disease. In order to become board certified, potential CNS candidate must pass an examination, much like Registered Dieticians.
This exam covers specific domains within the health sphere including; Clinical Intervention and Human Health. The study found that health literacy increases with education and people living below the level of poverty have lower health literacy than those above it. Another study examining the health and nutrition literacy status of residents of the lower Mississippi Delta found that 52 percent of participants had a high likelihood of limited literacy skills.
For example, only 12 percent of study participants identified the My Pyramid graphic two years after it had been launched by the USDA. The study also found significant relationships between nutrition literacy and income level and nutrition literacy and educational attainment  further delineating priorities for the region.
Among these problems are the lack of information about food choices, a lack of understanding of nutritional information and its application to individual circumstances, limited or difficult access to healthful foods, and a range of cultural influences and socioeconomic constraints such as low levels of education and high levels of poverty that decrease opportunities for healthful eating and living.
The links between low health literacy and poor health outcomes has been widely documented  and there is evidence that some interventions to improve health literacy have produced successful results in the primary care setting.
More must be done to further our understanding of nutrition literacy specific interventions in non-primary care settings  in order to achieve better health outcomes. Malnutrition refers to insufficient, excessive, or imbalanced consumption of nutrients by an organism. In developed countries, the diseases of malnutrition are most often associated with nutritional imbalances or excessive consumption.
In developing countries, malnutrition is more likely to be caused by poor access to a range of nutritious foods or inadequate knowledge. The aim was to boost nutrition and livelihoods by producing a product that women could make and sell, and which would be accepted by the local community because of its local heritage. Although under- and over-nutrition are often viewed as human problems, pet animals can be under- or overfed by their owners, domesticated animals can be undernourished for macro- and micro-nutrients, affecting growth and health, and wild animals can be undernourished to the point of starvation and death.
Nutritionism is the view that excessive reliance on food science and the study of nutrition can lead to poor nutrition and to ill health. It was originally credited to Gyorgy Scrinis ,  and was popularized by Michael Pollan. Since nutrients are invisible, policy makers rely on nutrition experts to advise on food choices. Because science has an incomplete understanding of how food affects the human body, Pollan argues, nutritionism can be blamed for many of the health problems relating to diet in the Western World today.
ULs are set a safe fraction below amounts shown to cause health problems. ULs are part of Dietary Reference Intakes. When too much of one or more nutrients is present in the diet to the exclusion of the proper amount of other nutrients, the diet is said to be unbalanced.
High calorie food ingredients such as vegetable oils, sugar and alcohol are referred to as "empty calories" because they displace from the diet foods that also contain protein, vitamins, minerals and fiber. Research indicates that improving the awareness of nutritious meal choices and establishing long-term habits of healthy eating have a positive effect on cognitive and spatial memory capacity, with potential to increase a student's ability to process and retain academic information.
Some organizations have begun working with teachers, policymakers, and managed foodservice contractors to mandate improved nutritional content and increased nutritional resources in school cafeterias from primary to university level institutions.
Health and nutrition have been proven to have close links with overall educational success. There is limited research available that directly links a student's Grade Point Average G.
Additional substantive data is needed to prove that overall intellectual health is closely linked to a person's diet, rather than just another correlation fallacy. Nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for major depression , bipolar disorder , schizophrenia , and obsessive compulsive disorder , the four most common mental disorders in developed countries.
Cancer is now common in developing countries. According to a study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer , "In the developing world, cancers of the liver, stomach and esophagus were more common, often linked to consumption of carcinogenic preserved foods, such as smoked or salted food, and parasitic infections that attack organs.
Several lines of evidence indicate lifestyle-induced hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulin function i. For example, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are strongly linked to chronic inflammation, which in turn is strongly linked to a variety of adverse developments such as arterial microtrauma and clot formation i.
Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance the so-called metabolic syndrome are characterized by a combination of abdominal obesity , elevated blood sugar , elevated blood pressure , elevated blood triglycerides , and reduced HDL cholesterol. The state of obesity clearly contributes to insulin resistance, which in turn can cause type 2 diabetes. Virtually all obese and most type 2 diabetic individuals have marked insulin resistance. Although the association between overweight and insulin resistance is clear, the exact likely multifarious causes of insulin resistance remain less clear.
It has been demonstrated that appropriate exercise, more regular food intake, and reducing glycemic load see below all can reverse insulin resistance in overweight individuals and thereby lower their blood sugar level , in those with type 2 diabetes.
In addition, reduced leptin signaling to the brain may reduce leptin's normal effect to maintain an appropriately high metabolic rate. In any case, analogous to the way modern man-made pollution may possess the potential to overwhelm the environment's ability to maintain homeostasis , the recent explosive introduction of high glycemic index and processed foods into the human diet may possess the potential to overwhelm the body's ability to maintain homeostasis and health as evidenced by the metabolic syndrome epidemic.
Antinutrients are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients. Nutrition studies focus on antinutrients commonly found in food sources and beverages. The relatively recent increased consumption of sugar has been linked to the rise of some afflictions such as diabetes, obesity, and more recently heart disease. Increased consumption of sugar has been tied to these three, among others.
In the same time span that obesity doubled, diabetes numbers quadrupled in America. Increased weight, especially in the form of belly fat, and high sugar intake are also high risk factors for heart disease.
Elevated amounts of Low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol, is the primary factor in heart disease. In order to avoid all the dangers of sugar, moderate consumption is paramount. Since the Industrial Revolution some two hundred years ago, the food processing industry has invented many technologies that both help keep foods fresh longer and alter the fresh state of food as they appear in nature.
Cooling is the primary technology used to maintain freshness, whereas many more technologies have been invented to allow foods to last longer without becoming spoiled.
These latter technologies include pasteurisation , autoclavation , drying , salting , and separation of various components, all of which appearing to alter the original nutritional contents of food. Pasteurisation and autoclavation heating techniques have no doubt improved the safety of many common foods, preventing epidemics of bacterial infection. But some of the new food processing technologies have downfalls as well. Modern separation techniques such as milling , centrifugation , and pressing have enabled concentration of particular components of food, yielding flour, oils, juices, and so on, and even separate fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals.
Inevitably, such large-scale concentration changes the nutritional content of food, saving certain nutrients while removing others. Heating techniques may also reduce food's content of many heat-labile nutrients such as certain vitamins and phytochemicals, and possibly other yet-to-be-discovered substances. In addition, processed foods often contain potentially harmful substances such as oxidized fats and trans fatty acids. A dramatic example of the effect of food processing on a population's health is the history of epidemics of beri-beri in people subsisting on polished rice.
Removing the outer layer of rice by polishing it removes with it the essential vitamin thiamine , causing beri-beri. Another example is the development of scurvy among infants in the late 19th century in the United States. It turned out that the vast majority of sufferers were being fed milk that had been heat-treated as suggested by Pasteur to control bacterial disease.
Pasteurisation was effective against bacteria, but it destroyed the vitamin C. As mentioned, lifestyle- and obesity-related diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent all around the world. There is little doubt that the increasingly widespread application of some modern food processing technologies has contributed to this development.
The food processing industry is a major part of modern economy, and as such it is influential in political decisions e. In any known profit-driven economy, health considerations are hardly a priority; effective production of cheap foods with a long shelf-life is more the trend.
In general, whole, fresh foods have a relatively short shelf-life and are less profitable to produce and sell than are more processed foods. Thus, the consumer is left with the choice between more expensive, but nutritionally superior, whole, fresh foods, and cheap, usually nutritionally inferior, processed foods.
Because processed foods are often cheaper, more convenient in both purchasing, storage, and preparation , and more available, the consumption of nutritionally inferior foods has been increasing throughout the world along with many nutrition-related health complications. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about Nutrition in general. For Nutrition in humans, see Human nutrition. For Nutrition in animals, see Animal nutrition. For nutrition in plants, see Plant nutrition. For the medical journal, see Nutrition journal.
Mineral nutrient and Composition of the human body. List of antioxidants in food. Animal nutrition and Human nutrition. Nutrition portal Food portal. Food Balance Wheel Biology: Bioenergetics Digestion Enzyme Dangers of poor nutrition Deficiency Avitaminosis is a deficiency of vitamins. Boron deficiency medicine Chromium deficiency Iron deficiency medicine Iodine deficiency Magnesium deficiency medicine Diabetes Eating disorders Illnesses related to poor nutrition Malnutrition Obesity Childhood obesity Starvation Food: Dieting Eating Healthy eating pyramid Nutritional rating systems Lists: Diets list List of food additives List of illnesses related to poor nutrition List of life extension related topics List of publications in nutrition List of unrefined sweeteners List of antioxidants List of phytochemicals Nutrients: Dietitian Nutritionist Food Studies Tools: Human Nutrition and Food".
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The Riverside Press Houghton Mifflin. Perspectives in Clinical Research. Eat, Drink, and be Healthy: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change 5 ed. The Journal of Nutrition. Observations on the effect of adding tryptophane to a dietary in which zein is the sole nitrogenous constituent" PDF. The Journal of Physiology. Selected Topics in the History of Biochemistry: Personal Recollections, Part 1. Retrieved March 15, Part 3 — ". Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health.
Part 4 — ". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved June 13, Retrieved December 22, Joins Hunt for Young German Chemist". San Bernardino Daily Sun. United States Department Of Agriculture. Archived from the original PDF on August 24, University of California Press.
Organized interventions to improve health based on the principles and procedures developed through the health sciences are provided by practitioners trained in medicine , nursing , nutrition , pharmacy , social work , psychology , occupational therapy , physical therapy and other health care professions. Clinical practitioners focus mainly on the health of individuals, while public health practitioners consider the overall health of communities and populations.
Workplace wellness programs are increasingly adopted by companies for their value in improving the health and well-being of their employees, as are school health services in order to improve the health and well-being of children. Public health has been described as "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals.
The population in question can be as small as a handful of people or as large as all the inhabitants of several continents for instance, in the case of a pandemic. Public health has many sub-fields, but typically includes the interdisciplinary categories of epidemiology , biostatistics and health services.
Environmental health , community health , behavioral health , and occupational health are also important areas of public health. The focus of public health interventions is to prevent and manage diseases, injuries and other health conditions through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behavior , communities , and in aspects relevant to human health environments.
Its aim is to prevent health problems from happening or re-occurring by implementing educational programs , developing policies , administering services and conducting research.
Vaccination programs and distribution of condoms to prevent the spread of communicable diseases are examples of common preventive public health measures, as are educational campaigns to promote vaccination and the use of condoms including overcoming resistance to such.
Public health also takes various actions to limit the health disparities between different areas of the country and, in some cases, the continent or world. One issue is the access of individuals and communities to health care in terms of financial, geographical or socio-cultural constraints to accessing and using services.
The great positive impact of public health programs is widely acknowledged. Due in part to the policies and actions developed through public health, the 20th century registered a decrease in the mortality rates for infants and children and a continual increase in life expectancy in most parts of the world. For example, it is estimated that life expectancy has increased for Americans by thirty years since ,  and worldwide by six years since Personal health depends partially on the active, passive, and assisted cues people observe and adopt about their own health.
These include personal actions for preventing or minimizing the effects of a disease, usually a chronic condition, through integrative care. They also include personal hygiene practices to prevent infection and illness, such as bathing and washing hands with soap; brushing and flossing teeth ; storing, preparing and handling food safely ; and many others.
Personal health also depends partially on the social structure of a person's life. The maintenance of strong social relationships , volunteering , and other social activities have been linked to positive mental health and also increased longevity. One American study among seniors over age 70, found that frequent volunteering was associated with reduced risk of dying compared with older persons who did not volunteer, regardless of physical health status.
Prolonged psychological stress may negatively impact health, and has been cited as a factor in cognitive impairment with aging, depressive illness, and expression of disease. Relaxation techniques are physical methods used to relieve stress.
Psychological methods include cognitive therapy , meditation , and positive thinking , which work by reducing response to stress. Improving relevant skills, such as problem solving and time management skills, reduces uncertainty and builds confidence, which also reduces the reaction to stress-causing situations where those skills are applicable.
In addition to safety risks, many jobs also present risks of disease, illness and other long-term health problems. Among the most common occupational diseases are various forms of pneumoconiosis , including silicosis and coal worker's pneumoconiosis black lung disease. Asthma is another respiratory illness that many workers are vulnerable to. Workers may also be vulnerable to skin diseases, including eczema , dermatitis , urticaria , sunburn , and skin cancer.
As the number of service sector jobs has risen in developed countries, more and more jobs have become sedentary , presenting a different array of health problems than those associated with manufacturing and the primary sector. Contemporary problems, such as the growing rate of obesity and issues relating to stress and overwork in many countries, have further complicated the interaction between work and health. Many governments view occupational health as a social challenge and have formed public organizations to ensure the health and safety of workers.
Examples of these include the British Health and Safety Executive and in the United States , the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health , which conducts research on occupational health and safety, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration , which handles regulation and policy relating to worker safety and health.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the human condition. For other uses, see Health disambiguation. Social determinants of health and Risk factor. This section has an unclear citation style. The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation and footnoting. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Healthy diet and Human nutrition.
Sleep and Sleep deprivation. Health science and Health care. Chronic care management , Social relation , and Stress management. Occupational safety and health. In Grad, Frank P. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. How should health be defined? The Hastings Center Studies.
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Journal of Public Health Policy. Rethinking the health consequences of social class and social mobility. The determinants of health. Accessed 12 May