What's the best diet for diabetes?
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They are digested more slowly, thus preventing your body from producing too much insulin. High glycemic index GI foods spike your blood sugar rapidly, while low GI foods have the least effect on blood sugar.
While the GI has long been promoted as a tool to help manage blood sugar, there are some notable drawbacks. If you have diabetes, you can still enjoy a small serving of your favorite dessert now and then. The key is moderation. Reduce your cravings for sweets by slowly reduce the sugar in your diet a little at a time to give your taste buds time to adjust. Hold the bread or rice or pasta if you want dessert. Eating sweets at a meal adds extra carbohydrates so cut back on the other carb-heavy foods at the same meal.
Add some healthy fat to your dessert. Think healthy fats, such as peanut butter, ricotta cheese, yogurt, or nuts. Eat sweets with a meal, rather than as a stand-alone snack. When eaten on their own, sweets cause your blood sugar to spike.
When you eat dessert, truly savor each bite. How many times have you mindlessly eaten your way through a bag of cookies or a huge piece of cake? Can you really say that you enjoyed each bite? Make your indulgence count by eating slowly and paying attention to the flavors and textures. Reduce soft drinks, soda and juice. For each 12 oz. Try sparkling water with a twist of lemon or lime instead. Cut down on creamers and sweeteners you add to tea and coffee. Buy unsweetened iced tea, plain yogurt, or unflavored oatmeal, for example, and add sweetener or fruit yourself.
Check labels and opt for low sugar products and use fresh or frozen ingredients instead of canned goods. Be especially aware of the sugar content of cereals and sugary drinks. Avoid processed or packaged foods like canned soups, frozen dinners, or low-fat meals that often contain hidden sugar. Prepare more meals at home. You can boost sweetness with mint, cinnamon, nutmeg, or vanilla extract instead of sugar. Refined Carbs and Sugar: Find healthy ways to satisfy your sweet tooth. Instead of ice cream, blend up frozen bananas for a creamy, frozen treat.
Or enjoy a small chunk of dark chocolate, rather than a milk chocolate bar. Start with half of the dessert you normally eat, and replace the other half with fruit.
And cocktails mixed with soda and juice can be loaded with sugar. Choose calorie-free mixers, drink only with food, and monitor your blood glucose as alcohol can interfere with diabetes medication and insulin.
Being smart about sweets is only part of the battle. Sugar is also hidden in many packaged foods, fast food meals, and grocery store staples such as bread, cereals, canned goods, pasta sauce, margarine, instant mashed potatoes, frozen dinners, low-fat meals, and ketchup.
The first step is to spot hidden sugar on food labels, which can take some sleuthing:. Manufacturers are required to provide the total amount of sugar in a serving but do not have to spell out how much of this sugar has been added and how much is naturally in the food. The trick is deciphering which ingredients are added sugars. Aside from the obvious ones— sugar, honey, molasses —added sugar can appear as agave nectar, cane crystals, corn sweetener, crystalline fructose, dextrose, evaporated cane juice, fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, invert sugar, lactose, maltose, malt syrup , and more.
A wise approach is to avoid products that have any of these added sugars at or near the top of the list of ingredients—or ones that have several different types of sugar scattered throughout the list. The trick is that each sweetener is listed separately. One normal serving of beer can add kcal to a person's intake for the day. If beer is not your drink of choice, you can use this calorie calculator provided by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism to work out how many calories alcohol adds to your diet.
The following foods and drinks provide the largest amounts of empty calories:. More than half of all people in the U. Approximately 5 percent of people in the U. This is the equivalent of more than four cans every day. There are ways of sourcing products with less solid fat or empty sugars. Rather than choosing the standard hot dog or a fatty cheese, for example, a person could choose low-fat options for either. However, even the lower-fat options are no replacement for calories consumed from sources that also provide nutritional benefit.
Most Americans don't have much room in their diets for a completely nutrient-void beverage. One recent study showed that drinking more than one sugar-sweetened beverage a day increases your risk of high blood pressure. It's better if you can avoid them altogether and instead consume water, fat-free or 1 percent fat milk, percent fruit juice, and low-sodium vegetable juices. The intake of empty calories can be avoided or dramatically reduced by incorporating fresh, healthy food and drink into the diet.
Calories seem to be linked only to weight gain and obesity, but they are vital for health. They only pose a health risk when people consume more than the recommended amount. When thinking about calories, you should not be considering just your diet but also your level of physical activity. A high intake of calories can be countered with regular, high-intensity exercise.
Article last updated by Yvette Brazier on Wed 13 December All references are available in the References tab. Consumption of sugar drinks in the United States, Sugar-sweetened beverages and consumption. How many calories does physical activity use burn? High caloric intake at breakfast vs. Obesity Silver Spring , 21 12 , A new method to monitor the contribution of fast food restaurants to the diets of US children [Abstract].
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Any diet that claims otherwise can end up causing weight gain. Various diet plans are summarized below to help you learn to review them for safety and effectiveness. The Atkins diet may be one of the most well-known fad diets.
It is a high-protein, high-fat, low-carbohydrate plan. This diet has been around for decades and has undergone many revisions. The previous plan allowed for unrestricted amounts of meat, cheese, and eggs while severely restricting carbohydrates, including sugar , bread, pasta, milk, fruits, and vegetables.
The Atkins diet web site states the current plan "is about eating delicious and healthy foods, which makes it so much better than any of those fad diets out there. You eat a variety of your favorite foods -- lean protein, leafy greens, vegetables, nuts, fruits, whole grains. Plus, you get delicious Atkins bars and shakes from day one and every step of the way. The plan is based on the theory that eating carbohydrates creates a production of insulin , a hormone secreted from the pancreas, leading to increased weight gain and hunger.
When converting to this approach, the plan holds that dieters will experience a reduced appetite, and their bodies will use stored fat for energy versus burning glucose from carbohydrate digestion. Burning fat for energy will supposedly lead to weight loss.
The most recent version of the Atkins diet is by far the most nutritionally balanced. For the first time, the Atkins diet has placed an emphasis on the kinds of fat being consumed instead of allowing all dietary fats.
The monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are now emphasized over saturated and trans fats. The diet has also changed to allow "good carbs" instead of severely restricting all carbohydrates. These foods provide fiber , vitamins , and minerals that were once lacking in this diet.
The high amount of protein will be beneficial in keeping you full. Research is clear that protein has a positive impact on increasing satiety, which means that you will feel full between meals. Disadvantages The Atkins diet has gone through numerous revisions over the years, though there was never any acknowledgement of flaws in any of the diet plans. Until recently, there have not been any studies on the safety or efficacy of the Atkins diet.
Short-term studies have shown improvements in blood cholesterol and blood sugar and an increased weight loss over the first three to six months in comparison to control diets. Unfortunately, the weight loss is not sustained at one year, and the improvements that were seen were due to weight loss and not the actual diet.
The long-term safety of low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets is unknown at this time. In a rating of diet books done by Consumer Reports, the Atkins diet was ranked at the bottom. There are four phases to the plan, and the first one is severely restricted in carbohydrates. The induction phase lasts two weeks, and the claim is you can lose up to 15 pounds in this time.
During this time you consume no more than 20 grams of carbohydrates per day. For example, one slice of bread has 15 grams of carbohydrates, one serving of fruit has 15 grams of carbohydrates, one serving of dairy has 12 grams of carbohydrates, and one serving of vegetables can have between 5 and 15 grams of carbohydrates.
It's clear that 20 grams is extremely limited, potentially unhealthy, and would be very difficult to follow for the long-term. The Atkins web site states that "depending on how much weight you have to lose, you can safely continue with the induction phase as long as the following three conditions are met:.
Most people who follow this diet are not under medical supervision, and this can become a very dangerous situation for them. The the induction phase gets people used to losing weight at a fast rate, which will not last and is not healthy. Faster weight loss does not mean healthy weight loss. Any diet that emphasizes fast, easy weight loss is one to approach with caution.
The guidelines are clear that a safe, healthy rate of weight loss is to lose 1 to 2 pounds per week after the first couple of weeks. The Atkins diet states you will lose "only body fat" by eating regular meals, taking in adequate calories, and keeping your insulin levels down.
There is no way to only lose body fat when losing weight. Claims that you will lose only fat are not based on science despite the fact that the Atkins diet claims to be scientifically based. The Pritikin diet is a very low-fat, high-carbohydrate eating plan.
The focus is to eat vegetables, fruits, and high-fiber grains. Nathan Pritikin's diet is based on the theory of eating low-fat, low-calorie, plant-based foods to promote weight loss and improve or prevent heart disease.
The revised Pritikin diet includes a "Calorie Density Solution: Eating low-calorie foods throughout the day will reduce hunger and cause weight loss.
Research has shown that the calorie density of our diets will impact our weight. The calorie density is the amount of calories in a given weight of food. Consuming foods that are considered low-calorie dense aids in weight loss. These foods will provide a high volume without a lot of calories.
By replacing foods that are considered high-calorie dense, you save additional calories. Some find it more satisfying to focus on consuming low-calorie dense foods in large quantities versus counting calories. The Pritikin diet also encourages daily exercise and stress -reduction techniques. The most controversial part of this diet is the severe fat restriction. There has been a considerable amount of research showing the health benefits of omega-3 fats, including protecting your heart.
The American Heart Association now recommends that people without coronary heart disease eat a variety of omega-3 fat-containing fish at least twice a week and that those with coronary heart disease consume one gram of omega-3 fats per day. Dietary fat is also needed to transport the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. Without fat to transport them, they will not be able to serve their functions in your body.
Our diets are meant to have a balance of protein, carbohydrates, and fat. When you consume too little of one of these nutrients it means you are consuming too much of another nutrient.
Most people who follow a very low-fat diet end up consuming an excess amount of carbohydrates. Too much of any nutrient can cause health problems. The Dietary Reference Intake DRI established the need for each one of these nutrients based on research for optimal health and weight. If you follow the Pritikin Principle it would be best to adjust your intake to meet the DRI guidelines.
The Zone diet is a high-protein, low-carbohydrate, fat-controlled eating plan. It is not as restrictive as other high-protein diets and it allows for a broad range of foods to be consumed.
A small amount of protein is combined with twice the amount of "favorable" carbohydrates, including fruits and vegetables. If choosing "less desirable" carbohydrates, the portion size is smaller. Sears' Zone diet is based on the theory that the human body is genetically programmed to reach peak efficiency when all meals, including snacks, consist of a set caloric ratio of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
When this ratio is achieved, the body is working within the "zone. The Zone diet promotes eating a balance of each nutrient, without severely restricting calories. Protein increases your feeling of fullness, helping you to avoid eating between meals, and there is a guide to what kind of fat you can consume. Healthy fats are encouraged in place of the saturated and trans fats. The calorie restriction will help you lose weight. The claims made about the health implications of carbohydrates and protein are controversial.
As with other fad diets, one nutrient is being made to look like the enemy carbohydrates , while protein is made to look like the key to weight loss and health. Most diets that are against carbohydrates use the arguments that we consume less fat and more carbohydrates than we did 10 years ago, and obesity is on the rise.
This is half true. We consume more carbohydrates, which means we consume more calories. Our fat intake remains above the recommendations, but the percent of our total calories from fat has come down because we are now consuming more calories. Again, research clearly shows that a balance of each of these nutrients is needed and that an excess or deficiency in any of them will cause problems. This diet can be difficult to stick with long-term, so weight regain can be an issue.
The South Beach Diet. The South Beach diet is the newest high-protein, low carbohydrate, and fat-controlled diet. This diet claims that the cause for obesity "is simple: The faster the sugars and the starches you eat are processed and absorbed into your bloodstream, the fatter you get. The first phase claims to eliminate cravings and kick-start weight loss; the second phase is for long-term, steady weight loss; and the third phase is to be followed for days a year once you have achieved your weight loss goal.
The second and third phases of this diet promote a balanced diet that can be beneficial to your health and weight. These phases promote consistent meal times, healthy snacks and desserts, and water. The meal plans and recipes can be useful for those who need some guidance on what to eat.
There are now six other books and an interactive web site supporting this plan. The theory behind the diet is not the reason you will lose weight if you follow this plan. Weight loss can only occur when you consume fewer calories than your body needs. In the introduction chapter the author makes numerous claims that you do not need to limit the quantity of food that you consume and then provides portion restrictions on many high calorie foods, such as nuts.
It's appealing to hear you can eat unlimited quantities, but weight loss will not be achieved without limitations.