It is pursuing other opportunities in the non-precious mining sector. ZBRA today announced the new ZQ series of label and receipt mobile printers designed to help businesses increase productivity in stores, backrooms and warehouses. Hey, ha thanks for the reply, I realised after that the last message was an essay! Equally an over-built first-level decision-making system that seeks perfection will undermine speed, with decision making taking too long for persons in need of protection and delaying removals of those ultimately found not in need of protection. Users seem to agree, describing these lights as durable, efficient and contributing to some of the highest yields they have ever achieved.
Soon af ter I moved from Ventura, I met a former astronaut who was hired by NASA with a Mars mission in mind and was investigating the free energy field. We eventually became colleagues and co-founded a non-profit organization intended to raise public awareness of new energy. In the spring of , I spent a few days with my former free energy partner and, like my astronaut colleague, he had also been run out of the USA after mounting an effort around high-MPG carburetor technology.
Every American president since Ronald Reagan knew my partner by name , but they proved to be rather low-ranking in the global power structure. My astro naut colleague investigated the UFO phenomenon early in his adventures on the frontiers of science and nearly lost his life immediately after refusing an "offer" to perform classified UFO research for the American military. It became evident that the UFO and free energy issues were conjoined.
A faction of the global elite demonstrated some of their exotic and sequestered technologies to a close fellow traveler, which included free energy and antigravity technologies.
My astronaut colleague was involved with the same free energy inventor that some around me were, who invented a solid-state free energy prototype that not only produced a million times the energy that went into it, but it also produced antigravity effects.
It was no conspiracy theory, but what my fellow travelers and I learned at great personal cost, which was regularly fatal. My former partner is the Indiana Jones of the free energy field, but I eventually realized that while it was awe-inspiring to witness his efforts, one man with a whip and fedora cannot save humanity from itself. I eventually took a different path from both my partner and astronaut colleague, and one fruit of that direction is this essay.
Not only was the public largely indifferent to what we were attempting, but those attracted to our efforts usually either came for the spectacle or were opportunists who betrayed us at the first opportunity.
As w e weathered attacks from the local , state , national , and global power structures, such treacherous opportunities abounded. The antics of the global elites are of minor importance; the enemy is us. Soon after I completed my present website in , one of R. This essay is intended to draw a comprehensive picture of life on Earth, the human journey, and energy's role. The references that support this essay are usually to works written for non-scientists or those of modest academic achievement so that non-scientists can study the same works without needing specialized scientific training.
I am trying to help form a comprehensive awareness in a tiny fraction of the global population. Between 5, and 7, people is my goal. My hope is that the energy issue can become that tiny fraction's focus. Properly educated, that group might be able to help catalyze an energy effort that can overcome the obstacles.
That envisioned group may help humanity in many ways, but my primary goal is manifesting those technologies in the public sphere in a way that nobody risks life or livelihood.
Here is a brief sum mary of this essay. Ever since life first appeared more than three billion years ago and about a billion years after the Sun and Earth formed, organisms have continually invented more effective methods to acquire, preserve, and use energy.
Complex life appeared after three billion years of evolution and, pound-for-pound, it used energy , times as fast as the Sun produced it. The story of life on Earth has been one of evolutionary events impacted by geophysical and geochemical processes , and in turn influencing them. During the eon of complex life that began more than million years ago, there have been many brief golden ages of relative energy abundance for some fortunate species, soon followed by increased energy competition, a relatively stable struggle for energy, and then mass extinction events cleared biomes and set the stage for another golden age by organisms adapted to the new environments.
Those newly dominant organisms were often marginal or unremarkable members of their ecosystems before the mass extinction. That pattern has characterized the journey of complex life over the past several hundred million years.
Intelligence began increasing among some animals, which provided them with a competitive advantage. The oldest stone tools yet discovered are about 3. About two million years later, the human line evolved to the point where behaviorally modern humans appeared, left Africa , and conquered all inhabitable continents. After all the easy meat was extinct and the brief Golden Age of the Hunter-Gatherer ended, population pressures led to the Third Epochal Event: That event led to civilization, and many features of the human journey often argued to be human nature, such as slavery and the subjugation of women , were merely artifacts of the energy regime and societal structure of agrarian civilizations.
Early civilizations were never stable; their energy practices were largely based on deforestation and agriculture, usually on the deforested soils , and such civilizations primarily collapsed due to their unsustainable energy production methods.
Europeans thereby began conquering the world. During that conquest, one imperial contender turned to fossil fuels after its woodlands were depleted by early industrialization. As E uropeans conquered Earth, elites, who first appeared with the first civilizations , could begin thinking in global terms for the first time, and a global power structure began developing. Toda y, industrialized humanity is almost wholly dependent on the energy provided by hydrocarbon fuels that were created by geological processes operating on the remains of organisms , and humanity is mining and burning those hydrocarbon deposits about a million times as fast as they were created.
We are reaching peak extraction rates but, more importantly, we have already discovered all of the easily acquired hydrocarbons. It is merely the latest instance of humanity's depleting its energy resources, in which the dregs were mined after the easily acquired energy was consumed.
The megafauna extinctions created the energy crisis that led to domestication and civilization , and the energy crisis of early industrialization led to using hydrocarbon energy , and the energy crisis of attracted my fellow travelers and me to alternative energy.
However, far more often over the course of the human journey, depleting energy resources led to population collapses and even local extinctions of humans in remote locations. Expanding and collapsing populations have characterized rising and falling polities during the past several thousand years, ever since the first civilizations appeared. Today, humanity stands on the brink of the abyss , and almost nobody seems to know or care. Humanity is a tunnel-visioned, egocentric species, and almost all people are only concerned about their immediate self-interest and are oblivious of what lies ahead.
Not all humans are so blind, and biologists and climate scientists , among others intimately familiar with the impacts of global civilization, are terrified by what humanity is inflicting onto Earth. Even th e ultra-elites who run Earth from the shadows readily see how their game of chicken with Earth may turn out. Their more extreme members advocate terraforming Mars as their ultimate survival enclave if their games of power and control make Earth uninhabitable. But the saner members, who may now be a majority of that global cabal , favor the dissemination of those sequestered technologies.
I am nearly certain that members of that disenchanted faction are those who gave my close friend an underground technology demonstration and who would quietly cheer our efforts when I worked with my former partner. They may also be subtly supporting my current efforts, of which this essay comprises a key component, but I have not heard from them and am not counting on them to save the day or help my efforts garner success.
Humanity can then live, for the first time, in an epoch of true and sustainable abundance. It could also halt the Sixth Mass Extinction and humanity could turn Earth into something resembling heaven. With t he Fifth Epochal Event, humanity will become a space-faring species, and a future will beckon that nobody on Earth today can truly imagine, just as nobody on Earth could predict how the previous Epochal Events transformed the human journey 1 , 2 , 3 , 4.
Also, each E pochal Event was initiated by a small group of people , perhaps even by one person for the earliest events , and even the Industrial Revolution and its attendant Scientific Revolution had few fathers. However, I came to realize that there is probably nobody else on Earth like my former partner , and even Indiana Jones cannot save the world by himself. With the strategy that I finally developed, I do not look for heroes because I know that there are not enough currently walking Earth.
I am attempting something far more modest. But after watching similar scenarios play out dozens of times, I finally had to admit the obvious , and my partner admitted it to me in I noticed several crippling weaknesses in all alternative energy efforts that I was involved with or witnessed.
Most importantly, when my partner mounted his efforts, people participated primarily to serve their self-interest. While the pursuit of mutual self-interest is the very definition of politics, self-interested people were easily defeated by organized suppression, although the efforts usually self-destructed before suppression efforts became intense. Another deficiency in all mass free energy efforts was that most participants were scientifically illiterate and did not see much beyond the possibility of reducing their energy bills or becoming rich and famous.
Once the effort was destroyed and they always are, if they have any promise , the participants left the alternative energy field. Also, many lives were wrecked as each effort was defeated, so almost nobody was able or willing to try again. Every time that my partner rebuilt his efforts, it was primarily with new people; few individuals lasted for more than one attempt. I reali ze that almost nobody on Earth today can pass the integrity tests that my fellow travelers were subjected to, and I do not ask that of anybody whom I will attempt to recruit into my upcoming effort.
Those recruits will simply be singing a song of practical abundance that will attract those who have been listening for that song for their entire lives. I am looking for singers, not soldiers, and the choir will primarily sing here. This effort could be called trying the enlightenment path to free energy, an abundance-based global political economy, and a healed humanity and planet.
I believe that the key is approaching the issue as creators instead of victims, from a place of love instead of fear. Those goals may seem grandiose to the uninitiated, and people in this field regularly succumb to a messiah complex and harbor other delusions of grandeur , but I also know that those aspirations are attainable if only a tiny fraction of humanity can help initiate that Fifth Epochal Event , just like the previous Epochal Events.
This essay is designed to begin the training process. Learning this material will be a formidable undertaking. This material is not designed for those looking for quick and easy answers, but is intended to help my readers attain the levels of understanding that I think are necessary for assisting with this epochal undertaking. In order to make this essay easier to understand, I created some tables and timelines, and they are:. Energy and the Indu strialized World. Although Gates and other high-technology billionaires can live surprisingly egalitarian lifestyles , for one person to possess the same level of wealth as billions of people collectively is a recent phenomenon.
In , about 30 thousand children died each day because of their impoverished conditions. It took me many years to gain a comprehensive understanding of how energy literally runs the world and always has. A typical day in my life during the winter before I wrote this essay can serve as an example. When I worked hour days and longer during that winter, which was the busiest time of my year, I often fasted and needed less sleep, so I often awoke before 5: In as I write this, I live in a fairly large house.
When I fast, my body generates less heat, so I feel cold rather easily; I wear thermal underwear under my work attire and have other strategies for staying warm, especially in the winter.
I programmed our furnace to begin operation soon before I awakened, so that my day started in a warm environment. I also have a space heater in my home office, so that the rest of the house can stay cold while I work in warmth. That winter, my first tasks when arising were turning on my computer and drinking a glass of orange juice, which raised my blood sugar. After some hours of reading about world events, answering emails, and working on my writings, I took a hot shower, dressed, and walked to a bus stop.
I read a book while awaiting the bus that took me to downtown Bellevue, where I worked in a high-rise office building for an Internet company. When I arrived at my office, I turned on my lights and computer. When I was eating, I put the food that I brought to work in a refrigerator under my desk.
During my work day, I interacted with many people in my air-conditioned, high-technology office environment. My cellular telephone was never far away. The view from my office window of the Cascade Mountains was pleasant. My computer interfaced with our distant data centers and the world at large via the Internet.
When my workday was finished, I rode the bus home. In the winter, the furnace is programmed to stop functioning when my wife and I leave for work, and comes on soon before we arrive home, so we never experienced a cold house. When I am not fasting, I usually eat dinner, with the food in my refrigerator usually purchased at a cooperative grocery store that has an enormous produce section, with food grown locally and imported from as far away as New Zealand, China, and Israel.
When I resumed my career in , I became an early riser and consequently went to bed by 9: During that day, around 80 times the calories that fueled my body were burned to support my activities. How did energy serve my daily activities? How did that disparity between the dying children and me come to be? This essay will address those questions. Humanity is Earth's leading tool-using species, and our tools made us.
Twigs, sticks, bones, and other organic materials were undoubtedly used as tools by our protohuman ancestors, but the only tools to survive for millions of years to be studied today are made of stone; the oldest discovered so far are about 3.
The Industrial Revolution was accompanied by the Scientific Revolution , and the synergy between scientific and technological advances has been essential and impressive, even leaving aside the many technologies and related theories that have been developed and sequestered in the above-top-secret world. The history of science is deeply entwined with the state of technology. Improving technology allowed for increasingly sophisticated experiments, and advances in science spurred technological innovation.
While many scientific practices and outcomes have been evil, such as vivisection and nuclear weapons , many others have not been destructive to humans or other organisms.
The 20 th century saw great le aps in technological and scientific advancement. My grandfather lived in a sod hut as a child , his son helped send men to the moon , and his grandson pursued world-changing energy technologies and still does.
Relativity and quantum theory ended the era of classical physics and, with their increasingly sophisticated toolset, scientists began to investigate phenomena at galactic and subatomic scales.
Space-based telescopes , electron microscopes , mass spectrometers , atomic clocks , supercolliders , computers, robots that land on distant moons and planets, and other tools allowed for explorations and experiments that were not possible in earlier times. There is more controversy with human remains and artifacts, but I am skeptical of popular works that argue for technologically advanced ancient civilizations and related notions.
Mass spectr ometers measure the mass of atoms and molecules, and have become increasingly refined since they were first invented in the 19 th century. Today, samples that can only be seen with microscopes can be tested and measured down to a billionth of a gram. Scientific investigations have determined that radioactive decay rates are quite stable and are primarily governed by the dynamics in a decaying atom.
The dates determined by radioactive dating have been correlated to other observed processes and the data has become increasingly robust over the years. The ability to weigh various isotopes, at increasing levels of precision, with mass spectrometers has provided a gold mine of data. Scientists are continually inventing new methods and ways to use them, new questions are asked and answered, and some examples of methods and findings follow.
Carbon has two primary stable isotopes: The energy of sunlight drives it, and that sunlight is primarily captured at the surface of water bodies and the oceans in particular. That air rises and cools, which reduces the water vapor that it can hold, so it falls as rain.
That is why tropical rainforests are near the equator. The rising equatorial air creates high-pressure dry air that pushes toward the poles, and at about 30 o latitude that air cools and sinks to the ground. As clouds pass over land, mountains force them upward and they lose their moisture in precipitation.
Below is a diagram of those dynamics. A wa ter molecule containing oxygen the most common oxygen isotope will be lighter than a water molecule containing oxygen both are stable isotopes , so it takes less energy to evaporate an oxygen water molecule than an oxygen water molecule.
Also, after evaporation, oxygen water will tend to fall back to Earth more quickly than oxygen water will, because it is heavier. Also, the oxygen-isotope ratio in fossil shellfish as their life processes prefer the lighter oxygen isotope has been used to help determine ancient temperatures. Sed iments are usually laid down in annual layers, and in some places, such as the Cariaco Basin off of Venezuela's coast, undisturbed sediments have been retrieved and analyzed, which has helped determine when ice sheets advanced and retreated during the present ice age.
Mass s pectrometers have been invaluable for assigning dates to various rocks and sedimentary layers, as radioactive isotopes and their daughter isotopes are tested, including uranium-lead , potassium-argon , carbon , and many other tests.
Many hypotheses and theories have arisen, fallen, and been called into question or modified by the data derived from those increasingly sophisticated methods, and a few examples should suffice to give an idea of what is being discovered.
The mo on rocks retrieved by Apollo astronauts are still being tested, as new experiments and hypotheses are devised. In , a study was published which resulted from testing moon rocks for the titanium and titanium ratios both are stable isotopes , and it has brought into question the hypothesis that the Moon was formed by a planetary collision more than four billion years ago.
In the Western Hemisphere, the Anasazi and Mayan civilization collapses of around a thousand years ago, or the Mississippian civilization collapse of years ago, have elicited a great deal of investigation. It is now known that the Anasazi and Mayan culture collapses were influenced by epic droughts, but that was only the proximate cause. The ultimate cause was that those civilizations were not energetically sustainable, and the unsustainable Mississippian culture was in decline long before Europeans invaded North America.
The Anasazi used logs to build their dwellings that today are famous ruins. Scientists have used strontium ratios in the wood to determine where the logs came from, as well as dating the wood with tree-ring analysis and analyzing pack rat middens , and a sobering picture emerged.
Th e region was already arid, but agriculture and deforestation desertified the region around Chaco Canyon , which was the heart of Anasazi civilization.
When Anasazi civilization collapsed, at Chaco Canyon they were hauling in timber from mountains more than 70 kilometers away the strontium ratios could trace each log from the particular mountain that it came from. When the epic droughts delivered their final blows, Anasazi civilization collapsed into a morass of starvation, warfare, and cannibalism, and the forest has yet to begin to recover, nearly a millennium later. Another major advance happened in the late 20 th century: In , the first amino acid sequence for a gene was determined.
In , the entire human genome was sequenced. Sequencing the chimpanzee genome was accomplished in , for orangutans in , and for gorillas in The comparisons of human and great ape DNA have yielded many insights, but the science of DNA analysis is still young. What has yielded far more immediately relevant information has been studying human DNA.
The genetic bases of many diseases have been identified. Hundreds of falsely convicted Americans have been released from prison, and nearly 20 from death row , due to DNA evidence's proving their innocence. Human DNA testing has provided startling insights into humanity's past. For instance, in Europe it appears that after the ice sheets receded 16, to 13, years ago, humans repopulated Europe , and for all the bloody history of Europe over the millennia since then, there have not really been mass population replacements in Europe by invasion, migration, genocide, and the like.
Europeans just endlessly fought each other and honed the talents that helped them conquer humanity. There were some migrations of Fertile Crescent agriculturalists into Europe , but other than hunter-gatherers being displaced or absorbed by the more numerous agriculturalists, there do not appear to be many population replacements.
In 2 , a study suggested that male farmers from the Fertile Crescent founded the paternal line for most European men as they mated with the local women. The Neanderthal genome has been sequenced , as well as genomes of other extinct species, and for a brief, exuberant moment, some scientists thought that they could recover dinosaur DNA , Jurassic-Park -style.
Although dinosaur DNA is unrecoverable, organic dinosaur remains have been recovered, and even some proteins have been sequenced, which probably no scientist believed possible in the s. Since , scientists have discovered planets in other star systems by using a variety of methods that reflect the improving toolset that scientists can use, especially space-based telescopes.
Before those discoveries, there was controversy whether planets were rare phenomena, but scientists now admit that planets are typical members of star systems.
Extraterrestrial civilizations are probably visiting Earth , so planets hosting intelligent life may not be all that rare. Those interrelated and often mutually reinforcing lines of evidence have made many scientific findings difficult to deny. The ever-advancing scientific toolset, and the ingenuity of scientists developing and using them, and particularly the multidisciplinary approach that scientists and scholars are increasingly using, have made for radical changes in how we view the past.
Those radical changes will not end any time soon, and what follows will certainly be modified by new discoveries and interpretations, but I have tried to stay largely within the prevailing findings, hypotheses, and theories, while also poking into the fringes and leading edges somewhat. Any mistakes in fact or interpretation in what follows are mine. Thousands of years ago, the Greek philosophers Democritus and Leucippus argued that the universe was comprised of atoms and the void, and Pythagoras taught that Earth orbited the Sun.
Hun dreds of years later, a Greek mathematician and engineer, Heron of Alexandria , described the first steam engine and windmill and is typically credited as the inventor, but the actual inventors are lost to history.
Western science and technology did not significantly advance for the next millennium, however, until ancient Greek writings were reintroduced to the West via captured Islamic libraries. The reintroduction of Greek teachings, and the pursuit of their energy technologies, ultimately led to the Industrial and Scientific revolutions. Scientific practice is ideally a process of theory and experimentation that can lead to new theories. There are three general aspects of today's scientific process, and it developed from a method proposed by John Hershel , which Charles Darwin used to formulate his theory of evolution.
Facts are phenomena that everybody can agree on, ideally produced under controlled experimental conditions that can be reproduced by other experimenters. Hypotheses are then proposed to account for the facts by using inductive also called abductive logic.
The hypotheses are usually concerned with how the universe works, whether it is star formation or evolution. If a hypothesis survives the fact-gathering process — often by predicting facts that later experiments verify — then the hypothesis may graduate to the status of a theory.
The principle of hypothesis and falsification is primarily what distinguishes science from other modes of inquiry. The rele gation of hypotheses and theories to oblivion, without getting a fair hearing, as the pioneer dies in obscurity or is martyred , only to be vindicated many years later, has been a typical dynamic. The man who first explained the dynamics behind the aurora borealis , Kristian Birkeland, died in obscurity in , with his work attacked and dismissed.
Endosymbiotic theory , the widely accepted theory of how mitochondria , chloroplasts , and other organelles came to be, was first proposed in , quickly dismissed, and not revived until the late s. Doubt instead of faith is the guiding principle of science. Only hypotheses that have survived numerous attempts to falsify them graduate to becoming theories.
Only scientists who can weather the attacks from their peers will survive long enough to see their hypotheses receive a fair hearing. Wit h what I know has been suppressed by private interests, often with governmental assistance, mainstream science is largely irrelevant regarding many important issues that could theoretically be within its purview.
Paradoxically, scientists can also fall for fashionable theories and get on bandwagons. There can be self-reinforcing bias in that the prevailing hypotheses can determine what facts are adduced, and potential facts thus escape inquiry, particularly when entire lines of inquiry are forbidden by organized suppression and the excesses of the national security state, as well as the indoctrination that scientists are subject to, as all people are.
When the Big Bang supposedly happened, there was no matter, but only energy. Only when the universe had sufficiently expanded and cooled, less than a second after the Big Bang, did matter begin to appear, which is considered to be comprised of relatively low energy states. However, there will be limitations, and some of them follow.
As Einstein and his colleagues readily admitted, the corpus of scientific fact and theory barely says anything at all about how the universe works. Sometimes, paradigms shift and scientists see the universe with fresh eyes. The ideals and realities of scientific practice are often at odds.
Ironically, when scientists reach virtual unanimity on a theory, it can be a sign that the theory is about to radically change, and many if not most scientists will go to their graves believing the theory that they were originally taught , no matter how much evidence weighs against it. A key tension in main stream science has long been the conflict between specialists and the generalists and multidisciplinarians.
New hypotheses often come from generalists and their inductive reasoning, and the best of them usually have some flash of insight that leads them to their breakthroughs, which is called intuition or the Creative Moment. I found that it is a close cousin to psychic ability, if not the same thing. Speciali sts are often those on the ground, getting their hands dirty and doing the detailed work that forms the bedrock of scientific practice.
Without their efforts, science as we know it would not exist. However, mainstream science has long suffered from the tunnel vision that overspecialization encourages, and R. Buckminster Fuller thought that the epidemic overspecialization and naïveté of mainstream scientists in his time was a ruling class tactic to keep scientists controlled and unable to see the forest for the trees.
Many paradigmatic breakthroughs in science and technology were made by non-professionals, specialists working outside of their field of professional expertise, and generalists traversing disciplinary boundaries. A comprehensivist tries to understand the details well enough to refrain from making unwarranted generalizations while also striving for that big-picture awareness.
There are also top-down and bottom-up ways to approach analyses; each can provide critical insight, and scientists and other analysts often try to use both. Anot her key set of tensions are those between theorists, empiricists, and inventors.
Theorists attempt to account for scientific data and ideally predict data yet to be adduced, which tests the validity of their hypotheses and theories. Empiricists often produce that scientific data. Inventors create new technologies and techniques. Albert Ein stein is the quintessential example of a theorist, who never performed experiments relating to his theories but accounted for experimental results and predicted them. Michelson and Morley , who performed the experiment that produced results that various scientists wrestled with for a generation before Einstein proposed his special theory of relativity , never suspected that their experiment would lead to the theories that it did.
Einstein expected that his theories would eventually be falsified by experimental evidence, but that the best parts of his theories would survive in the new theories. The Wright brothers w ere typical inventors.
The theorists were spectacularly wrong, the empiricists had abandoned their primary principle of observation, and it was up to inventors to finally open their eyes and minds, years after the public witnessed the new technologies working. Such inventions often threaten to upend the very foundations of scientific disciplines, which is primarily why they have been ignored as they have, if they are not actively suppressed.
The fin dings of mainstream science can be particularly persuasive when lines of evidence from numerous disciplines independently converge, which has become increasingly common as scientific investigations have become more interdisciplinary.
DNA testing is clearly showing descent relationships and ghost ancestors are being reconstructed via genetic testing. Numerous dating methods are used today, and more are regularly invented. Typically, a new technique will emerge from obscurity, often pioneered by a lonely scientist. For instance, dendrochronology , the reading of tree rings, was developed as a dating science by the dogged efforts of an astronomer who labored in obscurity for many years. He was a fortunate pioneer; when he died after nearly 70 years of effort, he had lived to see dendrochronology become a widely accepted dating method.
Eventually, the new method can break past the inertia and active suppression, and sometimes even if the breakthrough threatens powerful interests. Then the newly accepted method can be seen as a panacea for all manner of seemingly insoluble problems, in the euphoric, bandwagon phase. The history of science is filled with fads that faded to oblivion, sometimes quickly, while advances that survived the withering attacks are eventually seen in a more mature light, in which its utility is acknowledged as well as its limitations.
DNA and molecular clock analyses have largely passed through those phases in recent years. In the s, the idea of room-temperature superconductors had its brief, frenzied day in the sun when high-temperature superconductors were discovered. Cold fusion had a similar trajectory, although the effect seems real and MIT manipulated their data to try to make the effect vanish. After the bolide impact hypothesis broke through a taboo that lasted for more than a century, some scientists tried explaining all mass extinctions with bolide impacts.
In the dating sciences , the tests have all had their issues and refinements. The equipment has become more sophisticated, problems have been resolved, and precision has been enhanced. While there are continuing controversies, dating techniques have advanced just like many other processes over the history of science and technology.
In , dates determined for fossils and artifacts are generally only accepted with confidence when several different samples are independently tested and by different kinds of tests, if possible. If thermoluminescence , carbon , and other tests produce similar dates, as well as stratigraphic evidence , paleomagnetic evidence , current measurements of hotspot migration rates across tectonic plates , along with genetic and other evidence introduced in the past generation, those converging lines of evidence have produced an increasingly robust picture of not only what happened, but when.
In the s, I found the dating issue enthralling and saw it assailed by fringe theorists and by catastrophists in particular. A couple of decades later, I reached the understanding that, like all sciences, dating has its limitations and the enthusiasm for a new technique can become a little too exuberant, but dating techniques and technologies have greatly improved in my lifetime.
Controversies will persist over various finds and methods used, and scientific fraud certainly occurs, but taken as a whole, those converging lines of independently tested evidence make it increasingly unlikely that the entire enterprise is a mass farce, delusion, or even a conspiracy, as many from the fringes continue to argue.
There is s till a Flat Earth Society , and it is not a parody. I have looked into fringe claims for many years and few of them have proven valid; even if many were, their potential importance to the human journey was often minor to trifling.
Quite o ften, the pioneers of science and technology receive no credit at all , not even posthumous vindication , as others steal their work and become rich and famous. But if private and governmental interests do not suppress the data and theory, as is regularly achieved regarding alternative energy and other disruptive technologies , usually the data will eventually win. But the data does not always win. Lead received a similar clean bill of health by industrially funded laboratories as the conflicts of interest were surreal, and the public was completely unaware of who was really managing such public health issues and why.
Similar situations exist today. Perhaps the most significant challenge to mainstream science is the fact that numerous advanced technologies already exist on Earth, including free energy and antigravity technologies, but they are actively kept from public awareness and use. They and other exotic technologies developed in the above-top-secret world operate on principles that make the physics textbooks resemble cave drawings.
Thou sands of scientists and inventors have independently pursued FE technologies, but all such efforts, if they had promise or garnered any success, have been suppressed by a clandestine and well-funded effort of global magnitude. Although the gr eatest physicists were arguably mystical in their orientation , they rarely explored the nature of consciousness in the way that modern human potential efforts have.
When I was 16 years old, it was demonstrated to me, very dramatically, that everybody inherently possesses psychic abilities , which falsifies today's materialistic theories of consciousness. Millions of people had similar experiences during the last decades of the 20 th century when performing such exercises.
Far too often, when scientists discuss materialism, they compare it to organized religion, particularly its fundamentalist strains, as if those are the only two alternatives, when they are on opposite ends of a spectrum in one way and two sides of the same coin in others.
Ironically, organized skepticism is largely comprised of anti-scientists who try to deny that such abilities of consciousness are even worthy of scientific investigation. That would be like asking a Wall Street executive in the s what his opinion of communism was.
I was also regularly dismayed by orthodox scientific and academic works that dealt with the human brain, consciousness, human nature, UFOs , FE technology, and the like, in which the authors accepted declassified government documents at face value as in not wondering what else remained classified, for starters or looked no further than 19 th -century investigations. Armchair scientists who accept the skeptics' word for it have taken the easy way out and rely on highly unreliable "investigators" to tell them about the nature of reality.
They consequently do not have informed opinions, or perhaps more accurately, they have disinformed opinions. Not all main stream scientists relegate consciousness to a mere byproduct of chemistry. The greatest physicists knew that materialism was a doctrine built on unprovable assumptions, which amounts to a faith.
White scie nce still has almost nothing to say about the nature of consciousness. However, Black Science covert, largely privatized, and the same province where that advanced technology is sequestered is somewhat familiar with the nature of consciousness and considers it to be far more than a byproduct of chemistry. The assumption that the entire universe is a manifestation of consciousness is not only unassailable by White Science, but is probably a foundational assumption of Black Science and mystics.
The ba ttle between materialists and religious orders over the years, in which materialist evolutionists grapple with creationists and intelligent design proponents, seems to be a feud between two fundamentalist camps.
Nowhere in such battles are the abilities or wisdom of accomplished mystics found. The nature and role of consciousness, both in this dimension and beyond it, are likely far too subtle to be profitably engaged by the level of debate that predominates today.
As this essay will explore later, those issues are not merely fodder for idle philosophical pursuit, but at their root lies the crux of the current conundrum that humanity finds itself in, as we race toward our self-destruction.
White Science does not really know what energy is ; it can only describe its measurable effects. Our universe may have begun as pure energy and even if it did not, all matter appears to be comprised of energy , and consciousness may be required for our universe to exist at all, which may be part of the quantum paradox.
There is evidence that evolution is not purely the province of chance mutations, but that organisms can affect their evolution at the genetic level. The gre atest scientists readily admitted that the theories and data of physics, that hardest of the hard sciences, drew highly limited descriptions of reality, and those scientists were usually, to one extent or another, mystics. If textbook science falls far short of explaining reality, what can be said within its framework that is useful?
Our industrialized world is based on textbook science and feats such as putting men on the Moon were performed within the parameters of textbook science. With the waning of overspecialization and overreliance on reductionism in the last decades of the 20 th century, multidisciplinary works have proliferated and will tend to dominate the references for this essay.
I have found them not only very helpful for my own understanding, but they are appropriate references for a generalist essay. I have also avoided scientific terminology when feasible.
The main stream theory is that matter consists of elementary particles which are all forms of energy , and their interaction with the Higgs field is responsible for all mass. Almost all mass in the known universe consists of protons in hydrogen atoms, and those protons are in turn comprised of quarks , and electrons and neutrinos are the other first generation fundamental particles.
Protons have a positive electric charge, electrons a negative charge, and neutrinos no net charge. Today, mainstream science recognizes four forces in the universe: Gravity attracts matter to matter, and is thought to be responsible for the formation of stars, planets, and galaxies. But the universe seems to be built from processes , not objects. If FE, antigravity, and related technologies finally come in from the shadows, the elusive Unified Field may come with them, and the Unified Field might well be consciousness, which will help unite the scientist and the mystic, and that field may be divine in nature.
Energy may be best seen as motion Electron shells, how they are filled, and reactivity Helium and the noble gases Electron energy and quantum leaping Temperature How atoms react Elements in the human body Types of electron bonds, including hydrogen bonds This c hapter presents several energy and chemistry concepts essential to this essay.
Even though scientists do not really know what energy is they do not know what light or gravity are , either , energy is perhaps best seen as motion, whether it is a photon flying through space, the "orbit" of an electron around an atom's nucleus or of Earth around the Sun, an object falling to Earth, a river flowing toward the ocean, air moving through Earth's atmosphere, rising and falling tides, and blood moving through a heart.
The classical view of an electron had an electron orbiting the nucleus much in the same way that Earth orbits the Sun, but quantum theory presents a different picture, in which an electron is a wave that only appears to be a particle when it is observed.
When one electron shell is filled, electrons begin to fill shells farther from the nucleus. For the simplest atoms it works that way, but for larger atoms, particularly those of metallic elements, electrons fill shells in more complex fashion and electrons begin to fill subshells not necessarily in the shell closest to the nucleus. When an electron is unpaired or in an unfilled shell, it can be a valence electron, which can form bonds with other atoms.
In most circumstances, only unpaired electrons form bonds with other atoms. Electron bonds between atoms provide the basis for chemistry and life on Earth. For that simplest element, hydrogen, its lone electron has an affinity to pair up with another electron, and that smallest shell contains two electrons.
Hydrogen is never found in its monoatomic state in nature, but is bonded to other elements, as that lone electron finds another one to pair with, which also fills that simplest shell. In its pure state in nature, hydrogen is found paired with itself and forms a diatomic molecule. In chemistry notation, it is presented as H 2. Fluorine is so reactive that if it were sprayed on water, the water would burn. The ele ment with two protons in its nucleus is helium the number of protons determines what element the atom is , and its electrons are paired and its shell is filled.
Consequently, helium does not want to share its electrons with anything. Helium is the most non-reactive element known. It has never bonded with any other element, even fluorine.
Their electron shells are completely filled. It is not a smooth variation of distance, but only certain distances are possible.
When an electron changes its distance, it jumps in a process known as quantum leaping. That quantum leaping reflects how electrons gain or release energy.
When light hits an atom, if it is absorbed by an electron, the photon gives the electron the energy to move to an orbit farther away. When an electron emits light, that lost photon removes energy and the electron falls to a lower orbit.
The potential energy in the electron as it orbits the nucleus and the potential energy in a rock that I hold above the ground are similar, as the diagram below demonstrates.
Below is a diagram of a hydrogen atom as its electron orbits farther from the nucleus when it absorbs energy. As the diagram depicts, the atom gets larger. Lateral movement also called translational motion is called temperature. While finding an accurate definition of temperature can be a frustrating experience, temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy the energy of motion in matter.
As with the behavior of photons, at the atomic level the concept of temperature can break down, and classical behaviors emerge as groups of atoms lose their quantum properties. The transferred energy can be stored by the electrons leaping into higher orbits. They can in turn release that energy in the form of photons and return to lower orbits.
The increas ed movement of heated atoms is why substances expand in volume. The more motion, the higher the temperature, and just as an engine will fly apart when the RPMs go too high, when an atom vibrates too fast, an electron can leave the atom entirely and the atom becomes an ion. As substances become hotter, the electrons will be in higher orbits, and will fall farther when giving off photonic energy, so the photons have more energy shorter wavelengths.
Get a substance hot enough and it will emit photons that we can see visible light. Those first visible photons will be on the lower end of the spectrum of light that we can see with our eyes, and will be red. Get the substance hotter and the light can turn white, which means that we are seeing the full visible spectrum of light.
Get matter hot enough and it becomes plasma , as electrons float in a soup with nuclei. Those electrons are too energetic to be captured by nuclei and placed into shells. When tw o atoms come close to each other, if the potential energy of their combined state is less than their potential energy when they are separate, the atoms will tend to react.
But the reaction only happens when the electron shells come into an alignment so that the reaction can happen. If the shells do not meet in the proper alignment and velocity, the reaction will not happen and the atoms will bounce away from each other. The faster and more often the atoms collide, the likelier they are to react and reach that lower energy state. Chemical electron shell reactions need to reach their activation energy to occur, and this is measured in temperature.
The activation energy for hydrogen and oxygen to react and form water is about degrees Celsius o C. The fusion of a helium nucleus releases more than a million times the energy that it takes to ionize a hydrogen atom. As will be discussed later , some reactions have a cumulative result of absorbing energy , while others release it. The first can be seen as an investment of energy, while the second can be seen as consuming it. Below is a diagram of two hydrogen atoms before and after reaction, as they bond to form H 2.
Elements with their electron shells mostly, but not completely, filled are, in order of electronegativity: In that upper right corner of the periodic table , of largely filled electron shells, phosphorus and sulfur also reside. Carbon and hydrogen have their valence shells half filled. Flu orine forms the smallest negatively charged ions known to science and wrecks organic molecules for reasons discussed later in this essay. Organisms do not use fluorine, except for some plants that use it as a poison.
The classic example of this is the water molecule. In a body of water, oxygen atoms will attract hydrogen atoms of neighboring molecules, and a relatively weak attraction known as a hydrogen bond forms. Below is a picture of hydrogen bonds in water. Those hydrogen bonds make water the miraculous substance that it is. The unusual surface tension of water is due to hydrogen bonding. Water has a very high boiling point for its molecular weight compare the boiling points of water and carbon dioxide , for instance because of that hydrogen bonding.
Those energy and chemistry concepts should make this essay easier to digest. Timelines of En ergy, Geology, and Early Life. Provides the power for all of Earth's geophysical, geochemical, and ecological systems, with the only exception being radioactivity within Earth. Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions by millions of times, making all but the simplest life pre- LUCA possible.
Oxygen is generated, which complex life will later use, which makes non-aquatic life possible and also preserves the global ocean. Allows for larger cells and far greater energy generation capacity — pound for pound, a complex cell uses energy , times as fast as the Sun creates it. Dramatic climb in atmospheric oxygen , to eventually achieve modern levels, begins.
Largest organisms ever, and greatest energy storage and delivery to any biome, and they become the basis for coal. Among the first terrestrial animals with upright posture, enabling great aerobic capacity and domination of terrestrial environments. Great energy innovation to reduce reproductive costs, and animals are the beneficiaries, as they act as reproductive enzymes in greatest symbiosis of plant and animal life, which allows flowering plants to dominate terrestrial ecosystems.
Allows protohumans to leave trees , become Earth's dominant predator , alter ecosystems , and cooked food helped spur dramatic biological changes, including encephalization in human line. Changes the terms of engagement with prey and reduces hunting risk of large animals and increases effectiveness. Allows for first low-energy transportation, and ability to travel to unpopulated continents. Provides the local and stable energy supply that allowed for sedentary human populations and civilization.
Allows for tools highly improved over stone, for greater energy effectiveness of human activities. Turns global ocean into low-energy transportation lane and allows Europe to conquer the world. First attempt to create "free energy" technology is abandoned due to lack of funding. First man-powered flight , and establishment of first company to mass-produce automobiles.
Albert Einstein published his special theory of relativity and equation for converting mass to energy. Forms the framework for 20 th century physics, including the energy that can be liberated from an atom's nucleus. Oil-rich Ottoman Empire dismembered by industrial powers , establishing imperial and neocolonial rule in Middle East. USA harnesses the atom's power, and first use is vaporizing two cities , and the greatest period of economic prosperity in history begins.
The USA's national security state is born , Roswell incident. This is the final technology, along with free energy technology, to make humanity a universally prosperous and space-faring species. Former astronaut nearly dies immediately after rejecting the American military's UFO research "offer". The incident is one of many that demonstrate that the UFO issue is very real, but happened to somebody close to me. A close personal friend is shown free energy and antigravity technologies, among others , and another close friend had free energy technology demonstrated.
Those incidents are two of many that demonstrate that the free energy suppression issue is very real, but were witnessed by people close to me. Abbreviated Geologic Time Scale. Earth , Moon , and oceans form. Earth is bombarded with planetesimals.
Atmosphere is primarily comprised of carbon dioxide. Too much uncertainty and too little evidence to confidently draw maps, but landmasses existed. Earth cools to habitable temperature. Continents begin forming and growing. Atmosphere is mostly nitrogen, but oxygen begins to increase. All life is bacterial. Oxygenic photosynthesis first appears. Complex cell eukaryote first appears. Aerobic respiration first appears. Sexual reproduction first appears. Grazing of photosynthetic organisms first appears.
Supercontinent Rodinia breaks up. Second Snowball Earth event. Atmosphere oxygenated to near modern levels. Final banded iron formations appear. First land plants may have appeared.
Deep ocean is oxygenated. Mass extinction of microscopic eukaryotes. First large animals appear. First mass diversification of complex life. Most modern phyla appear.
Paleo-Tethys Ocean begins forming. Ice age begins and causes mass extinction which ends period. Complex life continues diversifying. First large reefs appear. Black tea with a slice of lemon and sugar, milk or honey is also a popular type of tea. Withal, coffee is by far one of the most consumed beverages in Albania, with several types of filter and instant coffee. Drinking coffee is very much a part of the people's lifestyle.
Wine drinking is popular throughout the Albanians. The country has a long and ancient history of wine production, as it belongs to the old world of wine producing countries. The architecture of Albania reflects the legacy of various civilizations tracing back to the classical antiquity. Major cities in Albania have evolved from within the castle to include dwellings, religious and commercial structures, with constant redesigning of town squares and evolution of building techniques.
Nowadays, the cities and towns reflect a whole spectrum of various architectural styles. In the 20th century, many historical as well as sacred buildings bearing the ancient influence were demolished during the communism. Considering the long period of rule of the Byzantine Empire , they introduced castles, citadels, churches and monasteries with spectacular wealth of visible murals and frescos. Perhaps the best known examples can be found in the southern Albanian cities and surroundigs of Korçë , Berat , Voskopojë and Gjirokastër.
Involving the introduction of Ottoman architecture there was a development of mosques and other Islamic buildings, particularly seen in Berat and Gjirokastër.
A productive period of Historicism , Art Nouveau and Neoclassicism merged into the 19th century, best exemplified in Korçë. The 20th century brought new architectural styles such as the modern Italian style , which is present in Tirana such as the Skanderbeg Square and Ministries.
It is also present in Shkodër, Vlorë , Sarandë and Durrës. Moreover, other towns received their present-day Albania-unique appearance through various cultural or economic influences.
Socialist classicism arrived during the communism in Albania after the Second World War. At this period many socialist-styled complexes, wide roads and factories were constructed, while town squares were redesigned and numerous of historic and important buildings demolished. These include the ancient remains of Butrint and the medieval Historic Centres of Berat and Gjirokastër. The Albanian folk music is a prominent section of the national identity and continues to play a major part in Albanian music.
Although, it can be divided into two stylistic groups, as performed by the northern Ghegs and southern Labs and Tosks. The northern and southern traditions are contrasted by the rugged tone of the north and the relaxed form of the south.
Many of the songs are about events from history and culture , including the traditional themes about honour, hospitality, treachery and revenge. He was nominated for the Grammy Award. Every cultural and geographical region of Albania has its own specific variety of costume that vary in style, material, color, shape, detail and form.
Some conservative old men and women mainly from the high northern as well as southern regions and wear traditional clothing in their daily lives. The clothing was made mainly of products from the local agriculture and livestock such as leather, wool, linen, hemp fiber and silk.
Nowadays, the traditional textiles are still embroidered in very collaborate ancient patterns. The visual arts tradition of Albania has been shaped by the many cultures, which have flourished on its territory.
Once the Byzantines , the Ottomans ruled over Albania for nearly five centuries, which greatly affected the country's artwork and artistic forms. After Albania's joining with the Ottoman Empire in , Ottoman influenced art forms such as mosaic and mural paintings became prevalent and no real artistic change occurred until the independence in Following mosaics and murals from Antiquity and the Middle Ages , the first paintings were icons Byzantine traditions.
Albanian earliest icons date from the late 13th century and generally estimated that their artistic peak reached in the 18th century. Among the most prominent representatives of the Albanian iconographic art were Onufri and David Selenica. The museums of Berat , Korçë and Tirana houses good collections remaining icons. By the end of the Ottoman rule, the painting was limited mostly to folk art and ornate mosques. Albanian artists continue to move art forward, while their art still remains distinctively Albanian in content.
Though among Albanian artist post-modernism was fairly recently introduced, there is a number of artists and works known internationally. The Albanian language comprises its own branch of the Indo-European language family. The language is considered an isolate within the Indo-European.
The only other languages that are the sole surviving member of a branch of Indo-European are Armenian and Greek. Albanian is often held to be related to the Illyrian languages , a language spoken in the Balkans during classical times.
Scholars argue that Albanian derives from Illyrian  while some others  claim that it derives from Daco - Thracian. Illyrian and Daco-Thracian, however, might have been closely related languages; see Thraco-Illyrian. The cultural renaissance was first of all expressed through the development of the Albanian language in the area of church texts and publications, mainly of the Catholic region in the northern of Albania, but also of the Orthodox in the south.
The Protestant reforms invigorated hopes for the development of the local language and literary tradition, when cleric Gjon Buzuku brought into the Albanian language the Catholic liturgy , trying to do for the Albanian language, what Martin Luther did for the German language. Meshari The Missal written by Gjon Buzuku was published in and is considered as one of the first literary work of written Albanian during the Middle Ages.
The refined level of the language and the stabilised orthography must be the result of an earlier tradition of written Albanian, a tradition that is not well understood. However, there is some fragmented evidence, pre-dating Buzuku, which indicates that Albanian was written from at least the 14th century. Other significant examples include: Albanian writings from these centuries must not have been religious texts only, but historical chronicles too.
They are mentioned by the humanist Marin Barleti , who in his book Siege of Shkodër Rrethimi i Shkodrës from , confirms that he leafed through such chronicles written in the language of the people in vernacula lingua as well as his famous biography of Skanderbeg Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi Epirotarum principis History of Skanderbeg from The History of Skanderbeg is still the foundation of Skanderbeg studies and is considered an Albanian cultural treasure, vital to the formation of Albanian national self-consciousness.
During the 16th and the 17th centuries, the catechism E mbësuame krishterë Christian Teachings from written by Lekë Matrënga , Doktrina e krishterë The Christian Doctrine from and Rituale romanum by Pjetër Budi , the first writer of original Albanian prose and poetry, an apology for George Castriot by Frang Bardhi , who also published a dictionary and folklore creations, the theological-philosophical treaty Cuneus Prophetarum The Band of Prophets by Pjetër Bogdani , the most universal personality of Albanian Middle Ages , were published in Albanian.
The most famous Albanian writer in the 20th and 21st century is probably Ismail Kadare. He has been mentioned as a possible recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature several times. Cinematography became popular in the 20th century, when foreign films and documentaries were shown in the cities of Shkodër and Korçë. The first Albanian films were mostly documentaries ; the first was about the Monastir Congress that sanctioned the Albanian alphabet in During communism, the Albanian Film Institute that later became known as Kinostudio Shqipëria e Re was founded with Soviet assistance, focusing mostly on propaganda of wartime struggles.
After , the communist government founded the Kinostudio Shqipëria e Re in This was followed by the first Albanian epic film , the Great Warrior Skanderbeg , a cooperation with Soviet artists chronicling the life and fight of the Albanian national hero Skanderbeg.
By , about movies had been produced, and Albania had over theaters. With the economic transition after the collapse of communism in the s, the Kinostudio was broken up and privatised. A new National Center of Cinematography was established, while cities built modern cinema theatres showing mostly American movies. The Tirana International Film Festival was established in and has become the premier and largest film festival in the country as well as in the Balkans.
Durrës hosts the International Film Summerfest of Durrës , the second largest international film festival in the country which takes place every year in late August or early September in Durrës Amphitheatre. Albania participated at the Olympic Games in for the first time.
The country made their Winter Olympic Games debut in Albania missed the next four games, two of them due to the and boycotts, but returned for the games in Barcelona. Since then, Albania have participated in all games. Albania normally competes in events that include swimming, athletics, weightlifting, shooting and wrestling. The country have been represented by the National Olympic Committee of Albania since The nation has participated at the Mediterranean Games since the games of in Syria.
The Albanian athletes have won a total of 43 8 gold, 17 silver and 18 bronze medals from to Football is by far the most popular sport in Albania. It is governed by the Football Association of Albania Albanian: Federata Shqiptare e Futbollit , F. Football arrived in Albania early in the 20th century when the inhabitants of the northern city of Shkodër were surprised to see a strange game being played by students at a Christian mission.
Albania scored their first ever goal in a major tournament and secured their first ever win in European Championship when they beat Romania by 1—0 in a UEFA Euro match on 19 June Weightlifting is one of the most successful individual sport for the Albanians, with the national team winning medals at the European Weightlifting Championships and the rest international competitions.
Albanian weightlifters have won a total of 16 medals at the European Championships with 1 of them being gold, 7 silver and 8 bronze. In the World Weightlifting Championships , the Albanian weightlifting team has won in a gold in a silver and in a bronze medal.
Historically, the Albanian people have established several communities in many regions throughout Southern Europe. The Albanian diaspora has been largely formed during the early Middle Ages , when they emigrated to Italy , especially in Sicily and Calabria , but as well as to Greece to escape either various socio-political difficulties and the Ottoman conquest of Albania.
Albanian minorities are present in the neighboring countries of Macedonia , Montenegro and Serbia. In Kosovo , Albanians makes up the largest ethnic group in the country.
Altogether, the number of ethnic Albanian living abroad its territory is estimated to be higher than the total population inside the territory of Albania. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the modern state. For other uses, see Albania disambiguation. Ti Shqipëri, më jep nder, më jep emrin Shqipëtar You Albania, give me honour, give me the name Albanian. Himni i Flamurit "Hymn to the Flag". History of Albania and Timeline of Albanian history.
Albania in the Middle Ages. Ottoman Albania and Islamization of Albania. After serving the Ottoman Empire for 20 years, Skanderbeg deserted and began a rebellion that halted Ottoman advance into Europe for 25 years.
Both cities have been inhabited continuously since antiquity. Albanian National Awakening and League of Prizren. People's Socialist Republic of Albania. Fall of communism in Albania , Pyramid schemes , and Civil War of Atlas of Albania at Wikimedia Commons. Biodiversity , Ecoregions , and Protected areas of Albania. Protected areas of Albania at Wikimedia Commons. Counties and Municipalities of Albania. Constitution , Cabinet , and Ministries of Albania.
Foreign relations of Albania. Armed Forces of Albania. Renewable energy and Oil fields in Albania. Science, technology and telecommunications in Albania. Albanian language and Languages of Albania. One road sign in Albanian and a minority language Macedonian and one in Albanian and a foreign language for tourists English in Pustec left Road sign in Albanian and a minority language Greek in Goranxi right. National symbols of Albania. Albanian cuisine and wine. Albanian music and traditional clothing.
Albanian language and literature. Naum Veqilharxhi lawyer and scholar — Parashqevi Qiriazi teacher and feminist — Albania at the Olympics and Albania at the Mediterranean Games. Lorik Cana is Albania's most capped player of all time. He captained the French Olympique de Marseille , as well as the Albanian national team.
Albanian diaspora and Albanian communities. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February , but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in , as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received formal recognition as an independent state from out of United Nations member states.
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Keshtu nga viti e ketej, gjuha angleze, gjermane dhe ajo turke kane pasur nje rritje te interest. Gjuha italiane, por edhe ajo franceze kane pasur nje stabilitet, pra as rritje dhe as ulje te interesit te pergjithshem nga ana e grupmoshes te siperpermendur. Vihet re se gjuha greke ka pesuar nje renie te forte te interesit.
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Retrieved March 11, Albania 0—1 Romania — Armando Sadiku scores the only goal to seal his country's first ever win at a major competition". Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 4 April Find more about Albania at Wikipedia's sister projects. Ardiaei Albanoi Amantini Enchele Taulantii. Climate Biodiversity Habitat Protected areas. Government agencies Head of state list Head of government list Foreign relations Political parties Treaties Visa policy.
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